Home Buyers and Sellers Real Estate Glossary | Real Estate

Every business has it’s jargon and residential real estate is no exception. Mark Nash author of 1001 Tips for Buying and Selling a Home shares commonly used terms with home buyers and sellers.1031 exchange or Starker exchange: The delayed exchange of properties that qualifies for tax purposes as a tax-deferred exchange.1099: The statement of income reported to the IRS for an independent contractor.A/I: A contract that is pending with attorney and inspection contingencies.Accompanied showings: Those showings where the listing agent must accompany an agent and his or her clients when viewing a listing.Addendum: An addition to; a document.Adjustable rate mortgage (ARM): A type of mortgage loan whose interest rate is tied to an economic index, which fluctuates with the market. Typical ARM periods are one, three, five, and seven years.Agent: The licensed real estate salesperson or broker who represents buyers or sellers.Annual percentage rate (APR): The total costs (interest rate, closing costs, fees, and so on) that are part of a borrower’s loan, expressed as a percentage rate of interest. The total costs are amortized over the term of the loan.Application fees: Fees that mortgage companies charge buyers at the time of written application for a loan; for example, fees for running credit reports of borrowers, property appraisal fees, and lender-specific fees.Appointments: Those times or time periods an agent shows properties to clients.Appraisal: A document of opinion of property value at a specific point in time.Appraised price (AP): The price the third-party relocation company offers (under most contracts) the seller for his or her property. Generally, the average of two or more independent appraisals.”As-is”: A contract or offer clause stating that the seller will not repair or correct any problems with the property. Also used in listings and marketing materials.Assumable mortgage: One in which the buyer agrees to fulfill the obligations of the existing loan agreement that the seller made with the lender. When assuming a mortgage, a buyer becomes personally liable for the payment of principal and interest. The original mortgagor should receive a written release from the liability when the buyer assumes the original mortgage.Back on market (BOM): When a property or listing is placed back on the market after being removed from the market recently.Back-up agent: A licensed agent who works with clients when their agent is unavailable.Balloon mortgage: A type of mortgage that is generally paid over a short period of time, but is amortized over a longer period of time. The borrower typically pays a combination of principal and interest. At the end of the loan term, the entire unpaid balance must be repaid.Back-up offer: When an offer is accepted contingent on the fall through or voiding of an accepted first offer on a property.Bill of sale: Transfers title to personal property in a transaction.Board of REALTORS® (local): An association of REALTORS® in a specific geographic area.Broker: A state licensed individual who acts as the agent for the seller or buyer.Broker of record: The person registered with his or her state licensing authority as the managing broker of a specific real estate sales office.Broker’s market analysis (BMA): The real estate broker’s opinion of the expected final net sale price, determined after acquisition of the property by the third-party company.Broker’s tour: A preset time and day when real estate sales agents can view listings by multiple brokerages in the market.Buyer: The purchaser of a property.Buyer agency: A real estate broker retained by the buyer who has a fiduciary duty to the buyer.Buyer agent: The agent who shows the buyer’s property, negotiates the contract or offer for the buyer, and works with the buyer to close the transaction.Carrying costs: Cost incurred to maintain a property (taxes, interest, insurance, utilities, and so on).Closing: The end of a transaction process where the deed is delivered, documents are signed, and funds are dispersed.CLUE (Comprehensive Loss Underwriting Exchange): The insurance industry’s national database that assigns individuals a risk score. CLUE also has an electronic file of a properties insurance history. These files are accessible by insurance companies nationally. These files could impact the ability to sell property as they might contain information that a prospective buyer might find objectionable, and in some cases not even insurable.Commission: The compensation paid to the listing brokerage by the seller for selling the property. A buyer may also be required to pay a commission to his or her agent.Commission split: The percentage split of commission compen-sation between the real estate sales brokerage and the real estate sales agent or broker.Competitive Market Analysis (CMA): The analysis used to provide market information to the seller and assist the real estate broker in securing the listing.Condominium association: An association of all owners in a condominium.Condominium budget: A financial forecast and report of a condominium association’s expenses and savings.Condominium by-laws: Rules passed by the condominium association used in administration of the condominium property.Condominium declarations: A document that legally establishes a condominium.Condominium right of first refusal: A person or an association that has the first opportunity to purchase condominium real estate when it becomes available or the right to meet any other offer.Condominium rules and regulation: Rules of a condominium association by which owners agree to abide.Contingency: A provision in a contract requiring certain acts to be completed before the contract is binding.Continue to show: When a property is under contract with contingencies, but the seller requests that the property continue to be shown to prospective buyers until contingencies are released.Contract for deed: A sales contract in which the buyer takes possession of the property but the seller holds title until the loan is paid. Also known as an installment sale contract.Conventional mortgage: A type of mortgage that has certain limitations placed on it to meet secondary market guidelines. Mortgage companies, banks, and savings and loans underwrite conventional mortgages.Cooperating commission: A commission offered to the buyer’s agent brokerage for bringing a buyer to the selling brokerage’s listing.Cooperative (Co-op): Where the shareholders of the corporation are the inhabitants of the building. Each shareholder has the right to lease a specific unit. The difference between a co-op and a condo is in a co-op, one owns shares in a corporation; in a condo one owns the unit fee simple.Counteroffer: The response to an offer or a bid by the seller or buyer after the original offer or bid.Credit report: Includes all of the history for a borrower’s credit accounts, outstanding debts, and payment timelines on past or current debts.Credit score: A score assigned to a borrower’s credit report based on information contained therein.Curb appeal: The visual impact a property projects from the street.Days on market: The number of days a property has been on the market.Decree: A judgment of the court that sets out the agreements and rights of the parties.Disclosures: Federal, state, county, and local requirements of disclosure that the seller provides and the buyer acknowledges.Divorce: The legal separation of a husband and wife effected by a court decree that totally dissolves the marriage relationship.DOM: Days on market.Down payment: The amount of cash put toward a purchase by the borrower.Drive-by: When a buyer or seller agent or broker drives by a property listing or potential listing.Dual agent: A state-licensed individual who represents the seller and the buyer in a single transaction.Earnest money deposit: The money given to the seller at the time the offer is made as a sign of the buyer’s good faith.Escrow account for real estate taxes and insurance: An account into which borrowers pay monthly prorations for real estate taxes and property insurance.Exclusions: Fixtures or personal property that are excluded from the contract or offer to purchase.Expired (listing): A property listing that has expired per the terms of the listing agreement.Fax rider: A document that treats facsimile transmission as the same legal effect as the original document.Feedback: The real estate sales agent and/or his or her client’s reaction to a listing or property. Requested by the listing agent.Fee simple: A form of property ownership where the owner has the right to use and dispose of property at will.FHA (Federal Housing Administration) Loan Guarantee: A guarantee by the FHA that a percentage of a loan will be underwritten by a mortgage company or banker.Fixture: Personal property that has become part of the property through permanent attachment.Flat fee: A predetermined amount of compensation received or paid for a specific service in a real estate transaction.For sale by owner (FSBO): A property that is for sale by the owner of the property.Gift letter: A letter to a lender stating that a gift of cash has been made to the buyer(s) and that the person gifting the cash to the buyer is not expecting the gift to be repaid. The exact wording of the gift letter should be requested of the lender.Good faith estimate: Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, within three days of an application submission, lenders are required to provide in writing to potential borrowers a good faith estimate of closing costs.Gross sale price: The sale price before any concessions.Hazard insurance: Insurance that covers losses to real estate from damages that might affect its value.Homeowner’s insurance: Coverage that includes personal liability and theft insurance in addition to hazard insurance.HUD/RESPA (Housing and Urban Development/Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act): A document and statement that details all of the monies paid out and received at a real estate property closing.Hybrid adjustable rate: Offers a fixed rate the first 5 years and then adjusts annually for the next 25 years.IDX (Internet Data Exchange): Allows real estate brokers to advertise each other’s listings posted to listing databases such as the multiple listing service.Inclusions: Fixtures or personal property that are included in a contract or offer to purchase.Independent contractor: A real estate sales agent who conducts real estate business through a broker. This agent does not receive salary or benefits from the broker.Inspection rider: Rider to purchase agreement between third party relocation company and buyer of transferee’s property stating that property is being sold “as is.” All inspection reports conducted by the third party company are disclosed to the buyer and it is the buyer’s duty to do his/her own inspections and tests.Installment land contract: A contract in which the buyer takes possession of the property while the seller retains the title to the property until the loan is paid.Interest rate float: The borrower decides to delay locking their interest rate on their loan. They can float their rate in expectation of the rate moving down. At the end of the float period they must lock a rate.Interest rate lock: When the borrower and lender agree to lock a rate on loan. Can have terms and conditions attached to the lock.List date: Actual date the property was listed with the current broker.List price: The price of a property through a listing agreement.Listing: Brokers written agreement to represent a seller and their property. Agents refer to their inventory of agreements with sellers as listings.Listing agent: The real estate sales agent that is representing the sellers and their property, through a listing agreement.Listing agreement: A document that establishes the real estate agent’s agreement with the sellers to represent their property in the market.Listing appointment: The time when a real estate sales agent meets with potential clients selling a property to secure a listing agreement.Listing exclusion: A clause included in the listing agreement when the seller (transferee) lists his or her property with a broker.Loan: An amount of money that is lent to a borrower who agrees to repay the amount plus interest.Loan application: A document that buyers who are requesting a loan fill out and submit to their lender.Loan closing costs: The costs a lender charges to close a borrower’s loan. These costs vary from lender to lender and from market to market.Loan commitment: A written document telling the borrowers that the mortgage company has agreed to lend them a specific amount of money at a specific interest rate for a specific period of time. The loan commitment may also contain conditions upon which the loan commitment is based.Loan package: The group of mortgage documents that the borrower’s lender sends to the closing or escrow.Loan processor: An administrative individual who is assigned to check, verify, and assemble all of the documents and the buyer’s funds and the borrower’s loan for closing.Loan underwriter: One who underwrites a loan for another. Some lenders have investors underwrite a buyer’s loan.Lockbox: A tool that allows secure storage of property keys on the premises for agent use. A combo uses a rotating dial to gain access with a combination; a Supra® (electronic lockbox or ELB) features a keypad.Managing broker: A person licensed by the state as a broker who is also the broker of record for a real estate sales office. This person manages the daily operations of a real estate sales office.Marketing period: The period of time in which the transferee may market his or her property (typically 45, 60, or 90 days), as directed by the third-party company’s contract with the employer.Mortgage banker: One who lends the bank’s funds to borrowers and brings lenders and borrowers together.Mortgage broker: A business that or an individual who unites lenders and borrowers and processes mortgage applications.Mortgage loan servicing company: A company that collects monthly mortgage payments from borrowers.Multiple listing service (MLS): A service that compiles available properties for sale by member brokers.Multiple offers: More than one buyers broker present an offer on one property where the offers are negotiated at the same time.National Association of REALTORS® (NAR): A national association comprised of real estate sales agents.Net sales price: Gross sales price less concessions to the buyers.Off market: A property listing that has been removed from the sale inventory in a market. A property can be temporarily or permanently off market.Offer to purchase: When a buyer proposes certain terms and presents these terms to the seller.Office tour/caravan: A walking or driving tour by a real estate sales office of listings represented by agents in the office. Usually held on a set day and time.Parcel identification number (PIN): A taxing authority’s tracking number for a property.Pending: A real estate contract that has been accepted on a property but the transaction has not closed.Personal assistant: A real estate sales agent administrative assistant.Planned unit development (PUD): Mixed-use development that sets aside areas for residential use, commercial use, and public areas such as schools, parks, and so on.Preapproval: A higher level of buyer/borrower prequalification required by a mortgage lender. Some preapprovals have conditions the borrower must meet.Prepaid interest: Funds paid by the borrower at closing based on the number of days left in the month of closing.Prepayment penalty: A fine imposed on the borrower by the lender when the loan is paid off before it comes due.Prequalification: The mortgage company tells a buyer in advance of the formal mortgage application, how much money the borrower can afford to borrow. Some prequalifications have conditions that the borrower must meet.Preview appointment: When a buyer’s agent views a property alone to see if it meets his or her buyer’s needs.Pricing: When the potential seller’s agent goes to the potential listing property to view it for marketing and pricing purposes.Principal: The amount of money a buyer borrows.Principal, interest, taxes, and insurance (PITI): The four parts that make up a borrower’s monthly mortgage payment. Private mortgage insurance (PMI): A special insurance paid by a borrower in monthly installments, typically of loans of more than 80 percent of the value of the property.Professional designation: Additional nonlicensed real estate education completed by a real estate professional.Professional regulation: A state licensing authority that oversees and disciplines licensees.Promissory note: A promise-to-pay document used with a contract or an offer to purchase.R & I: Estimated and actual repair and improvement costs.Real estate agent: An individual who is licensed by the state and who acts on behalf of his or her client, the buyer or seller. The real estate agent who does not have a broker’s license must work for a licensed broker.Real estate contract: A binding agreement between buyer and seller. It consists of an offer and an acceptance as well as consideration (i.e., money).REALTOR®: A registered trademark of the National Association of REALTORS® that can be used only by its members.Release deed: A written document stating that a seller or buyer has satisfied his or her obligation on a debt. This document is usually recorded.Relist: Property that was listed with another broker but relisted with a current broker.Rider: A separate document that is attached to a document in some way. This is done so that an entire document does not need to be rewritten.Salaried agent: A real estate sales agent or broker who receives all or part of his or her compensation in real estate sales in the form of a salary.Sale price: The price paid for a listing or property.Seller (owner): The owner of a property who has signed a listing agreement or a potential listing agreement.Showing: When a listing is shown to prospective buyers or the buyer’s agent (preview).Special assessment: A special and additional charge to a unit in a condominium or cooperative. Also a special real estate tax for improvements that benefit a property.State Association of REALTORS®: An association of REALTORS® in a specific state.Supra®: An electronic lockbox (ELB) that holds keys to a property. The user must have a Supra keypad to use the lockbox.Temporarily off market (TOM): A listed property that is taken off the market due to illness, travel, needed repairs, and so on.Temporary housing: Housing a transferee occupies until permanent housing is selected or becomes available.Transaction: The real estate process from offer to closing or escrow.Transaction management fee (TMF): A fee charged by listing brokers to the seller as part of the listing agreement.Transaction sides: The two sides of a transaction, sellers and buyers. The term used to record the number of transactions in which a real estate sales agent or broker was involved during a specific period.24-hour notice: Allowed by law, tenants must be informed of showing 24 hours before you arrive.Under contract: A property that has an accepted real estate contract between seller and buyer.VA (Veterans Administration) Loan Guarantee: A guarantee on a mortgage amount backed by the Department of Veterans Affairs.Virtual tour: An Internet web/cd-rom-based video presentation of a property.VOW’s (Virtual Office web sites): An Internet based real estate brokerage business model that works with real estate consumers in same way as a brick and mortar real estate brokerage.W-2: The Internal Revenue form issued by employer to employee to reflect compensation and deductions to compensation.W-9: The Internal Revenue form requesting taxpayer identification number and certification.Walk-through: A showing before closing or escrow that permits the buyers one final tour of the property they are purchasing.Will: A document by which a person disposes of his or her property after death.
www.loancoina.info then ,www.jakesantose.info then ,www.buyingkoreas.info then ,www.homebrosa.me then ,www.vapourhousea.me then ,www.srimusic.cf then

Indian Textile Machinery Industry | Industrial

Overview and TrendsTextile industry in India is considered as a pioneer industry, as India’s industrializations in other fields have succeeded through the resources generated by textile industry. Though, from the early 1970s to the beginning of liberalization in 1992, the industry tended to be isolated as measures taken by the Government (with the apparent objective of protecting the cotton growers, the large labor force and the consumers) have constantly eroded its prosperity.World over, the Indian textile industry is considered as the second largest industry. It has the biggest cotton acreage of 9 million hectares and is considered as the third largest producer of this fiber. In terms of staple fiber production it comes fourth and sixth for filament yarn production. The country reports about one fourth of global trade in cotton yarn.With over 15 million people employment, the textile industry accounted for 20 percent of its industrial production. Covering textiles and garments, thirty percent of India’s export comes from this sector, in terms of exports it is the largest contributors for the growth of Indian economy. In spite of high capital and power cost, the Indian textile and garment sector’s strength comes from the availability of cotton, lower labor costs, well skilled supervisory staff and plentiful technical and managerial skills.Although very few countries are endowed with such resources, today’s globalization has brought new opportunities for the India textile industry. Concurrently, it is exposed to threats, particularly from cheap imported fabrics. Thus, India has to fight for her share in the international textile trade. Even if it is assumed that WTO will mean better distribution of the world trade, the benefits for India will not be any different than for the other developing countries. The Indian textile industry would, therefore, have to not only rely on its strengths but should also endeavor to remove its weakness.India’s apparel exporters, though, have been employing various strategies to make sure that they remain competitive in the liberalized trading environment of 2005 and beyond. Many manufacturers are taking action for improving production efficiency through advanced automation system, re-engineering of production systems, merging separate production units and backward and forward integration of operations and are keen to expand their production capacity in anticipation of enhanced demand in 2005 and beyond Among other manufacture are seeking changes through diversifying their product ranges, exporting high value apparel and improving their design capabilities and some of are planning to raise added value by setting up joint ventures with foreign firms, to take benefit of their technical, design and marketing proficiency. Others are making relationships with foreign buyers to increase their marketing capability.Support has also arrived from the Indian government in the removal of restrictions on investment by large companies and foreign investors. The Government has also provided assistance to expand the infrastructure for exporters and has given incentives for techno-logical up-gradation. Though, most important restriction is the inflexibility in labor laws, which cause it hard for large firms to cut their workforces when require.Textile industry in tenth planThe Tenth Five Year Plan of India (2002-2007) forecasted a GDP growth rate of 8 percent for which an industrial growth of 10 percent is predicted.The aim of the Tenth Plan is to facilitate the textile and apparel industry to:. Develop world class state-of the-art production facility to accomplish and maintain a leading global position in production and export of textiles and clothing.. Withstand demands of import penetration and uphold a dominant existence in the domestic market.. To accomplish these aims heavy funds are needed in technology and modernization in critical areas particularly in spinning, weaving, knitting, finishing and apparel sectors.. The technology up-gradation scheme (TUFS) introduced in 1999 intended to make investments component attractive. This scheme has been established to promote modernization and technology up-gradation in the specified sectors of textile and jute industries.. The Government of India has also declared the National Textile Policy-2000 to expand a sound and vibrant textile industry. The objectives and plunged areas of the national textile policy cover technology up-gradation, enhancement of productivity, quality consciousness, product diversification and so on.Schemes to strengthen investment in textiles during the Tenth Plan cover:Rearranging spinning capacityAt present nearly 38 million spindles are already existed. About 10 million old spindles required to be scrapped, and another 15 million spindles to be modernized. Adding on, about 3 million new spindles have to be set up during the Tenth Plan period.LoomageThe decentralized power loom sector, which reported 68 percent share of the cloth in the country, is in very strong and immediate need of renovation. The textile package declared in the Central Government included renovation of the weaving sector with 2.50 lakhs semi-automatic/automatic shuttle looms and 50,000 shuttleless looms.FinishingThere are nearly 2324 precessing establishments in the country of which 83 belong to composite units, 165 to semi composite and others 2076 are self-governing processing houses. Among of 227 establishments are modern, 1775 are of medium technology and 322 are obsolete establishments. Reconstruction of finishing units will need a huge financial expenditure.Schemes for expansion and development of the knitting sector, technical textiles, and woolen and jute industries are to be considered. The textile Engineering Industry is to be encouraged to modernize and offer state-of-the-art technology to the textile industry and through focused textile machinery R&D efforts, domestic reaches and development are to be initiated.Growth in the textile machineryDue to high investments on renovation of plant and machinery in the textile manufacturing industry, the manufacturing of textile machinery, their parts and accessories rose last fiscal by 25 percent to Rs 1,668 crore from Rs 1,341 crore in the previous fiscal.According to the Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association of India (TMMAI), the industry also witnessed its capacity of consumption at 55 percent during the year.But, on the other hand the total projected demand of Rs 4,200 crore of the textile industry, a major contribution was satisfied through imports. This has identified for an urgent requirement on the part of both the user-textile industry and the textile engineering industry (TEI) to start a joint assessment to reverse this movement, said the outgoing Chairman of TMMAI, Sanjay Jayavartanavelu.On the event of the 45th annual general meeting of Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association of India, Jayavartanavelu said the surge in demand for textile machinery has initiated the TEI to make production capacity bigger to satisfy the increasing demand, particularly in the spinning machinery sector. The units in the industry were dynamic to step up production to cut down the delivery period.This is regardless of the truth that they had to compete with longer delivery schedules from main machinery suppliers. In spite of this, the TEI should make an effort to satisfy the demand in volume/quality and performance with effective after sales service.The TMMAI Chairman felt amendment in fiscal policy and elimination of hurdles being faced by the TEI required to be effected to make the indigenous textile machinery sector gain strength and scale up its technology and export competitiveness. The areas of fiscal modification needed are letting down the rate of excise duty on textile machinery from 16 percent to the merit rate of 8 percent, continuation of the relaxation in excise duty, which should be extended to inputs required for making of specified textile machines.The intermediate products required in producing textile machinery as well as spares should be put at four percent excise duty subject to actual-user stipulation. At the same time, the present customs duty concessions on specified machines must be detached and one common rate of import duty of 10 per cent should be charged for all textile machines.The TMMAI Chairman also emphasize the requirement for early creation of a Rs 2,500-crore development fund for TEI to facilitate the units to use on R&D, infrastructure building, export promotion and plans on environmental protection.Recent developments in technologyIn the international textile and clothing trade, the elimination of decades old quota system has thrown up new challenges as well as unlocks new prospects for the Indian textile industry.According to the vision statement made by the ICMF for the textile sector, by 2010 the Indian textile industry has the potential to have the market size of worth of $ 85 billion from the present size of $ 36 billion. This development can be gained by the opening of new domestic as well as export segments. Textile export could arrive at $ 40 billions mark by 2010 from current 12 billion dollar level. Result on export side can be measured satisfactory during the last six months. For receiving the prospective business, the textile industry has to move towards value added products. The most value addition in textile segment is created by the apparel segment. Processing, fabric manufacturing and spinning segments in order to make quality apparels will require up-gradationDuring last decade, there has been observed fast progress in machinery/technology. A concise representation of modern developments in a range of areas is given below.SpinningManufacturing facility in blowroom line has enhanced to 800 kg/hr with a prerequisite to work 3 mixings all together. To process broad range of cottons, the latest blowroom is provided with automatic bale opener with integrated mixer and cleaning systems. For the latest carding machine as a substitute of one licker-in, multiple licker-ins is built-in serially. And provide more stationary flats. For feed roll, doffer, web doffing, maintenance free digital drives are used. The whole card clothing can be separated with a less function of operation. For full flange of operation, a variety of systems like NEP control, flat control and waste control etc., are integrated.For modern draw-frame machine, delivery speed up to 1000 mt/minute made possible with an alternative of automatic draft control mechanism which gives out requirement for gear change for controlling draft and delivery speed. In few machines separate deliveries can be restricted without help. Supplier also offers draw frame which can be connected to carding machine. It is stated that owing to digital autoleveller the precision measurement is in its height on an average one meter CV of sliver can be controlled below 0.4 percent.Combers speed up to 400 nips/min is possible due to technological advancement. From latest comber up to 1.3 tones/day productions is achieved. Touch screens display system also provided with these machines. The display covers production data, process setting, machine parameters setting and fault message display. To save installation time many machines are provided with fully assembled in four modules.Latest speed frame are offered in atomization system including all the operations. All the functional set ups can be fitted on electronic panel. Bobbin size 6″ x 16″ or 7″ x 16″ can be available. There is an availability of alternative of manual or auto doffing. Machines are provided upto 160 spindles capacity hence considerable saving in the operational cost possible.In the latest ring spinning system winding geometries are further give to maximize result with less winding tension. Hence, superior draft up to 80 are received with higher spindle speed (above 20000 rpm). A number of other features of modern ring frames are adopted with inverter drive for spindles, independent spindle ring rail and drafting system drives, fast doffing system with no trailing ends. Ring frame up to 1344 spindles are provided. In presents rotor spinning system, diverse yarn can be spun in several part of the machine. It is feasible to get package of changeable density. All the technical factors and machine adjustment can be controlled by computer. In the latest rotor machine it is viable to make a package with 30% higher package density than old rotor machine.In the latest winding machine path of ring cop from bottom to winding head is further developed. Hence, superior control of winding tension produces lower augmentation in hairiness. The adaptable knotting cycle combined with tailored acceleration dynamics facilitates to alter production system. The immediate controlled cylinder inverter and suction motor inverter are provided for energy conservation. Modern vortex spinning system is available to spin cotton yarn at a speed of 400 mt/min. The technology was previously applied for spinning synthetic blended yarn only.The latest DREF spinning system can make numerous kinds of multi-component yarns. The drafting unit can manage all kinds of synthetic fibers such as aramid, preoxidised fiber, polyamide, phenol resin fibers and melamine fibers. The machine is able to perform with several cores. The manufacturing facility is achieved as high as 250 mtr/min and fineness of yarn can be from 0.5 to 25 nm.Weaving
The important aspects of modern weaving preparatory/ weaving machines are reviewed as under:Machinery producers of both weaving preparatory and weaving machines have received gain in technological aspects to make fault free fabric for the garment sector. Nearly all the machines are provided with electronic control panels and micro-processors controls which monitors and control the machine utility to satisfy the fabric quality need and modification in design styles.Maintenance of machine has turn out to be stress-free due to proficient lubrication system and improved machine design and substitution of mechanical tools with electronic control system. There is an obvious progress to resource the components and auxiliary equipment from the selected good manufacturers rather than making themselves, hence decreasing the cost of the machines. In latest rapier looms weft insertion rate ranges from 1200 – 1500 mt/min. Many looms are provided with weaving a broad range of fabrics. In many weaving machines weft insertion rate is achieved at higher and ranges from 1800-2500 mt/min.Latest sizing machine is provided with uniform size pick up facility across the warp sheet and for least amount hairiness and loss in elongation. These are maintained by temperature control and moisture control devices. Squeeze pressure can be maintained by programmable controller to synchronize the compressing at all the speeds. Stretch monitoring instrument is imparted to control the stretch.KnittingIn recent times the quality requirements imposed on a knitting factory by its customer have become even more precise due to greater emphasis on the reproducibility in case of repeat order. Typically a modern knitting machine has following features as:Automatic computation of fabric reduces speed, feeders per course, stitch/cm and elongationAutomatically managed thread infeed by inflowing the needed thread infeed per cmAutomatic management of height modification through computerAutomatic supervision of yarn infeed and yarn tensionThrough user friendly software, computer helps to make the goods on the selected patternProcessingNew generation processing machine incorporates microprocessor controls. Various process parameters can be programmed in microprocessor for strict adherence of processing conditions. Apart from good control, machines are also energy efficient and features are incorporated for the reduction of consumption of chemicals, water and steam etc. The developments are also taking place keeping environment requirement and eco-friendly processing while manufacturing the textile products and safer conditions for those involved in the manufacturing.Process control or quality controlIn the area of cotton testing, latest instruments are mostly available as High Volume Instruments (HVI) and are prepared with automatic sampling. They also evaluate short fiber content and maturity index values besides testing of length, strength and fineness parameters. It is stated that maturity values are fairly precise. Instruments are also provided with test color, trash neps and fluorescence values. Few suppliers are offering bale management systems.For the manmade fibers and its connected instruments offered with the measurement in denier, tenacity, elongation and crimp properties. From the creel, robotic arm can carry the fiber samples automatically.In the part yarn quality, latest evenness tester can measure, evenness, imperfection and intermittent errors at a greater speed. Many of them instruments are prepared to measure hairiness, diameter variation, shape, and dust as well as trash contents. Single thread strength testing machine are provided with a testing speed of 400 mt/min. The machine is prepared to take out 30000 tests per hour. It is noted that weaving operation of the yarn can be expected advanced with this machine. Some of the single thread strength machines are fitted with automatic yarn count determination device.Yarn fault classification device has shifted to the winding machine from the laboratory. Data of entire yarn lot can be readable from the winding machines. Electronic check Board can perform the yarn grading, based on yarn output and observed by applying CCD camera and software to measure yarn report. Instrument can also offer fabric simulations if needed.In fabric testing, automatic fabric inspection device can examine grey and single cotton dyed fabrics for all materials covering air bag fabrics and glass fiber fabrics. The imperfection can be recovered from their reports and images. In the area of process control and management ERP systems are establish which supply 3-tier solution covering the online data acquisition, offline data entry cum reporting device and intelligent business management device.ConclusionToday, Indian industry is extremely fragmented. In the organized spinning sector there are nearly 2300 players with 280 composite mills, There are 1000 weaving units and around 1,45,000 independent processing units and innumerable garment makers. The position of machinery technology is not well apart from the spinning sector. Nearly 100000 modern shuttleless looms are needed to set up and to satisfy the target by 2010. Processing sector will also require big amount of up-gradation. It is calculated that a total investment of 35 billion dollar might be needed to achieve the growth intended by ICMF.
www.corkrentals.me then ,www.househoops.me then ,www.backerhomese.me then ,www.drawyourhomes.me then ,auctionsblog.eu.org then ,autocares.eu.org then